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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2021 Jul 26

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.21.11845-2

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Early outcomes of routine delayed shunting in carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic patients

Francesco SQUIZZATO, Andrea XODO, Jacopo TAGLIALAVORO, Marco ZAVATTA, Franco GREGO, Michele ANTONELLO, Michele PIAZZA

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Division, Department Of Cardiac, Thoracic Vascular Sciences and Public Health, School of Medicine, Padova University, Padua, Italy


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BACKGROUND: The role of shunting during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in symptomatic patients is unclear. The aim was to evaluate early outcomes of CEA with routine “delayed” shunt insertion, for patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis.
METHODS: we conducted a single-center retrospective review of symptomatic patients undergoing CEA (2009-2020). All CEAs were performed under general anesthesia using a standardized technique, based on delayed routine shunt insertion after plaque removal. Primary endpoints were 30-days mortality and stroke. A logistic regression was performed to identify clinical and procedural factors predictors of post-operative stroke. A literature systematic review was conducted using the terms “carotid endarterectomy” “stroke”, “transient ischemic attack”, “symptomatic carotid stenosis”, and “shunt”.
RESULTS: two-hundred-sixty-three CEAs were performed for TIA (n=178, 47%) or acute ischemic stroke (n=85, 32%). Mean delay of surgery was 6±19 days, and early CEA (<48 hours) was performed in 98 cases (37%). Conventional CEA was performed in 171 patients (67%), eversion CEA in 83 (33%). Early (30-days) mortality was 0.3%. Stroke/death rate was 2.3%. Female sex (OR 5.14, 95%CI 1.32-24.93; P=.023), use of anticoagulants (OR 10.57, 95%CI 2.67-51.86; P=.001), preoperative stroke (OR 5.34, 95%CI 1.62-69.21; P=.006), and the presence of preoperative CT/MRI cerebral ischemic lesions (OR 5.96, 95%CI 1.52-28.59; P=.013) were associated with early neurological complications. Statin medication (OR 0.18, 95%CI 0.04-0.71; P=.019) and CEA timing <2 days (OR 0.14, 95%CI 0.03-0.55; P=.005) were protective from postoperative stroke. CEA outcomes were independent from time period (P=.201) and operator’s volume (P=.768). Four studies described the CEA outcomes with routine shunting in symptomatic patients, with a large variability in the selection of patients, surgical technique, and description of the results.
CONCLUSIONS: Routine delayed shunting after plaque removal seems to be a safe and effective technique, that contributed to maintain a low complication rate in neurologically symptomatic patients. Statin use and expedited timing were associated with improved outcomes using this technique.


KEY WORDS: Carotid endarterectomy; Shunt; Stroke; Transient ischemic attack; Symptomatic carotid stenosis

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