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REVIEW  VASCULAR SECTION 

The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2022 October;63(5):632-44

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.22.12273-1

Copyright © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Sex differences in acute type A aortic dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Nicholas M. FIALKA 1, Sabin J. BOZSO 2, Ryaan EL-ANDARI 1, Jimmy J. KANG 2, Andrew O’CONNELL 2, Michael C. MOON 2, Roderick MACARTHUR 2, Jeevan NAGENDRAN 2

1 Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2 Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada



INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive comparison of outcomes following acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) repair in males and females.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science were systematically searched by two authors for studies published from January 1st, 2000, to May 10th, 2021. Overall, 2405 articles were screened, and 16 were included in this review. Meta-analysis of the compiled data was performed.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Pooled estimates indicated no difference in operative (odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-1.67, P=0.99, I2=52%), in-hospital (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.56-1.08; P=0.13, I2=57%), and 30-day mortality (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.83-1.43, P=0.52, I2=45%) between the sexes. However, males had significantly reduced 5-year mortality rates (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-1.00, P=0.05, I2=45%). There was no difference between sexes in rates of postoperative stroke (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.86-1.33, P=0.54, I2=0%), atrial fibrillation (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.82-1.19, P=0.92, I2=0%), as well as mesenteric or limb ischemia (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.22-2.43, P=0.61, I2=77%; OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.30-2.30, P=0.72, I2=76%, respectively). Males did experience significantly increased rates of acute renal failure and reoperation (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.56, P=0.0001, I2=29%; OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.81, P=0.010, I2=42%).
CONCLUSIONS: Composite analysis indicates that early mortality does not differ between the sexes; however, late outcomes favor males. Differences in preoperative presentation and subsequent procedure selection between the sexes likely contribute to the disparity in late outcomes. Decision-making for surgical treatment of ATAAD should account for sex-specific risk factors.


KEY WORDS: Dissecting aneurysms; Sex characteristics; Meta-analysis

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