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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2022 April;63(2):202-7

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.21.11924-X


language: English

Kinetics of serum procalcitonin in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia and bowel infarction after cardiac surgery

Raoul BORIONI 1 *, Mariano GAROFALO 1, Franco TURANI 2, Luca P. WELTERT 1, Carolina PACIOTTI 3, Alessandro BELLISARIO 1, Ruggero DE PAULIS 1

1 Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, European Hospital, Rome, Italy; 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Aurelia Hospital, Rome, Italy; 3 Department of Vascular Surgery, Aurelia Hospital, Rome, Italy

BACKGROUND: The present study reported perioperative changes in PCT levels occurring in cardiac patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) undergoing laparotomy. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that PCT kinetics may confirm the presence of AMI after cardiac surgery, distinguishing between bowel infarction and diffuse ischemia.
METHODS: PCT values from adult patients undergoing laparotomy for AMI after elective or urgent cardiac surgery (January 2010-December 2019) were determined at the ICU admission after cardiac surgery, 24 hours later and at the onset of clinical symptoms. Patients affected by diffuse intestinal ischemia with no need for bowel resection were allocated to Group A (N. 8), patients presented with intestinal necrosis requiring small or large bowel resection were allocated to Group B (N. 12).
RESULTS: At the beginning of the abdominal symptoms, PCT levels increased in both groups, compared to those immediately after cardiac surgery. The PCT increasing resulted much more evident in patients presenting with intestinal necrosis in Group B (20.65 ng/mL [IQR8.47-34.5] vs. 4.31 ng/mL [IQR 8.47-34.5], P<0.05), rather than in those with diffuse ischemia in Group A (13.25 ng/mL [IQR 5.97-27.65] vs. 10.4 ng/mL [IQR 3.68-14.05], P=0.260). This trend was confirmed in the subgroup of patients undergoing CVVHD and in patients who experience AMI recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Increasing PCT values after cardiac surgery are proportional to the severity of wall ischemia and high levels of PCT are predictive of intestinal necrosis. Routine PCT monitoring after cardiac surgery should be considered extremely useful in suggesting the possibility of abdominal complications, alerting medical staff to the need of prompt treatment.

KEY WORDS: Mesenteric ischemia; Procalcitonin; Cardiac surgical procedures

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