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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  VASCULAR SECTION 

The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2021 August;62(4):354-63

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.21.11705-7

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Age corrected changes in intracranial hemodynamics after carotid endarterectomy

Mirte SCHAAFSMA 1 , Gerard J. GLADE 2, Paul J. KELLER 2, Arjen SCHAAFSMA 2

1 Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2 Department of Vascular Surgery and Clinical Neurophysiology, Martini Ziekenhuis Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands



BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) is a frequently used method to monitor brain perfusion during and following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Our aim was to define the normally occurring changes of intracranial hemodynamics in patients undergoing CEA measuring recently developed TCD parameters.
METHODS: A retrospective, single-center cohort study was performed. Patients undergoing CEA were evaluated pre- and postoperatively from day 0 to day 3 measuring middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAFV). The following parameters were analyzed: the first systolic peak (Sys1), the second systolic peak (Sys2) and diastolic flow velocity at a fixed time after heartbeat onset (Dias@560). These parameters linearly decrease with age and were, therefore, transformed to Z-scores.
RESULTS: Three hundred eighteen patients were included with a mean age of 70.8 years. Most patients were male (71%). Compared to preoperatively, the Z-scores of Sys1 and Sys2 were larger on postoperative day 3: +1.12 standard deviation (SD) or 16.0 cm/s (CI: 0.93 to 1.32; P<0.001) and +0.55 SD or 7.8 cm/s (CI: 0.35 to 0.74; P<0.001), respectively. The Z-score for Dias@560 was smaller than preoperatively: -0.23 SD or -1.9 cm/s (CI: -0.41 to -0.05, P=0.015).
CONCLUSIONS: Under normal circumstances Sys1 profits more from CEA than Sys2, whilst diastolic flow velocity decreases. This indicates a return to normal arteriolar vascular resistance. Carefully describing normal changes in MCAFV, may in future enable discrimination of abnormalities, such as hyperperfusion syndrome.


KEY WORDS: Endarterectomy, carotid; Carotid stenosis; Ultrasonography, Doppler, transcranial; Hemodynamics

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