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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2020 December;61(6):697-707

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.20.11555-6


language: English

Complicated acute type B aortic dissection: update on management and results

Eric Y. PRUITT 1, Salvatore T. SCALI 1 , Dean J. ARNAOUTAKIS 1, Martin R. BACK 1, George J. ARNAOUTAKIS 2, Tomas D. MARTIN 2, Thomas M. BEAVER 2, Thomas S. HUBER 1, Gilbert R. UPCHURCH 3

1 Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2 Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3 Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

BACKGROUND: The role of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has evolved and is now firmly established as a mainstay of therapy for acute complicated type B aortic dissection (acTBAD). However, several important issues remain unresolved including the optimal timing, sizing, graft selection, coverage length and utilization of adjunctive therapies to address false lumen perfusion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide a contemporary perspective on the management and results for TEVAR of acTBAD.
METHODS: All TEVAR patients (N.=159) with acTBAD from a single high-volume, academic medical center were analyzed. Comparative results across time-dependent cohorts (2005-2009 [N.=43] vs. 2010-2014 [N.=56] vs. 2015-2020 [N.=60]) are presented.
RESULTS: 30-day mortality was 13%(N.=21) with a trend towards improvement over time (2005-2009, 18% vs. 2010-2020, 12%; P=0.1). Similarly, incidence of postoperative complications also declined: 2005-2009, 70% vs. 2010-2020, 36%(P-trend=0.08). One and 2-year freedom from aorta-related reintervention was 78±7% and 73±9% and did not differ across cohorts (log-rank P=0.5). Respective one and 5-year survival was 75±3% and 64±7%, but significantly improved with time (log-rank P<0.001). The corresponding one and five-year freedom from aorta-related mortality was 82±4% and 78±7% but did not change during the study interval (log-rank P=0.3).
CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes for TEVAR of acTBAD continue to improve over time. This time-dependent analysis delineates how results have changed due to increasing experience, technologic evolution, and maturation of the peer reviewed evidence. These results along with the evidence-based review provided herein, provide an update on the management and results of TEVAR of acTBAD while highlighting specific controversies unique to the management of this challenging clinical problem.

KEY WORDS: Aneurysm, dissecting; Aorta; Endovascular procedures

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