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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2020 June;61(3):292-300

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.20.11293-X


language: English

Extended repair for acute type A aortic dissection: long-term outcomes of the frozen elephant trunk technique beyond 10 years

Wei-Guo MA 1, 2, 3, Yu CHEN 1, 2, Wei ZHANG 1, 2, Qing LI 1, 2, Jian-Rong LI 1, 2, Jun ZHENG 1, 2, 3, Yong-Min LIU 1, 2, 3, Jun-Ming ZHU 1, 2, 3 , Li-Zhong SUN 1, 2, 3

1 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Beijing Aortic Disease Center, Beijing Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; 2 Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, China; 3 Fu Wai Hospital and Cardiovascular Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China

BACKGROUND: Long-term data are scarce regarding the efficacy of extended repair for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) using the frozen elephant trunk and total arch replacement (FET + TAR) technique. We seek to evaluate our single-center experience with the FET + TAR technique in patients with ATAAD, focusing on early and long-term survival and reoperation.
METHODS: The early and long-term outcomes of FET + TAR were analyzed for 518 patients with ATAAD operated on between April 2003 and December 2012. Mean age 46.2±10.5 years and 426 were male (82.2%). The mean time from symptomatic onset to surgery was 4.8±3.7 days. Malperfusion occurred in 66 (12.7%) and Marfan syndrome (MFS) in 51 (9.8%). Bentall procedure was performed in 153 (29.5%), aortic cusp resuspension in 82 (15.8%), root remodeling (uni- or bi-Yacoub) in 19 (3.7%), ascending aortic replacement in 22 (4.2%) and extra-anatomic bypass in 15 patients (2.9%). The times of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), cross-clamp and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion were 201±50, 112±34, and 26±10 minutes, respectively.
RESULTS: Operative mortality rate was 7.5% (39/518). Spinal cord injury occurred in 2.5% (13/518), stroke in 2.9% (15/518), re-exploration for bleeding in 2.5% (13/518) and acute kidney injury in 4.6% (24/518). Early reintervention with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was performed in 3 (0.6%). Follow-up was complete in 98.7% (473/479) at mean 9.0±4.8 years (range 0.2-16.2). Late death occurred in 74, distal dilation in 31 and distal new entry in 9 patients. Late reoperation was performed in 31 patients, including TEVAR in 12, thoracoabdominal aortic replacement in 9, abdominal aortic replacement in 2, and anastomotic leak repair in 5. Survival and freedom from distal reoperation were 77.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72.9-81.1%) and 69.8% (95% CI 63.4-75.3%), and 92.9% (95% CI 89.9-95.0%) and 92.9% (95% CI 89.9-95.0%) at 10 and 15 years, respectively. Competing risks analysis showed that at 12 years, the incidence was 28.0% for death, 8.5% for distal reoperation, and 63.5% of patients were alive without reoperation. Multivariable analyses found that CPB time (in minutes) (odds ratio [OR], 1.011; 95% CI 1.006-1.017; P<0.001) and malperfusion syndrome (binary) (OR 2.291; 95% CI 1.283-6.650; P=0.011) were predictive of operative mortality, while multiple malperfusion predicted late death (hazard ratio, HR 6.815; 95% CI 2.447-18.984; P<0.001). Risk factors for late death and distal reoperation included MFS (HR, 1.824; 95% CI 1.078-3.087; P=0.025) and malperfusion (HR, 1.787; 95% CI 1.042-3.064; P=0.035).
CONCLUSIONS: In this large series of patients with ATAAD, the FET + TAR technique has achieved favorable early and long-term survival and freedom from reoperation up to 15 years. Marfan syndrome and malperfusion syndrome were risk factors for early and late mortality and distal reoperation. This study adds long-term evidence supporting the use of the FET + TAR technique in patients with ATAAD involving the arch and descending aorta.

KEY WORDS: Aortic aneurysm; Blood vessel prosthesis; Treatment outcomes; Survival

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