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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  VASCULAR SECTION 

The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2018 December;59(6):810-6

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.16.09673-7

Copyright © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

language: English

Risk factors analysis of thromboembolectomy for acute thromboembolic lower extremity ischemia in native arteries

Gabriele PIFFARETTI 1 , Alessandro ANGRISANO 1, Marco FRANCHIN 1, Massimo FERRARIO 1, Nicola RIVOLTA 1, Alessandro BACUZZI 2, Patrizio CASTELLI 1, Matteo TOZZI 1

1 Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria School of Medicine, Circolo University Hospital, Varese, Italy; 2 Unit of Anesthesia and Palliative Care, Circolo University Hospital, Varese, Italy


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BACKGROUND: Aim of this study is to report the results of thromboembolectomy (ThEmb) for acute thromboembolic lower limb ischemia (ATLI) in native arteries and to create a predictive score for amputation-free survival (AFS) at 30 days.
METHODS: It is a single center, retrospective analysis of a four years period. All patients had ThEmb: adjunctive procedures included femoral and/or popliteal endarterectomy in 30 (18.3%) cases, PTA-stent in 24 (14.6%), and femoral endarterectomy plus PTA-stent in 12 (7.3%). Fasciotomies were performed in 6 (3.6%) patients. Predictors of AFS identified on univariate screen (inclusion threshold, P<.20) were included in a multivariable model. The resulting significant predictors were assigned an integer score to stratify patients into risk groups.
RESULTS: Authors analyzed 164 limbs in 164 patients. Mean age was 80±10 years (range, 40-99). In-hospital mortality was 9.8% (N.=16); AFS at 30 days was 84.7% (N.=139). The anatomic level (iliac vs. femoropopliteal vs. infrapopliteal) of the occlusion did not affect AFS (P=.326). Multivariable analysis identified six significant predictors of AFS at 30 days: age >85 (P=0.050), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.008), chronic renal insufficiency (P=0.019), late (>6 hours) onset (P=0.004), the presence of major neurologic deficit (P=0.023), and an increased (>800IU/L) level of creatine phosphokinase (P=0.001). An integer score generated two risk groups (low-risk 0-2 [70.1% of cohort], and high-risk ≥3 [29.9% of cohort]): stratification of the patients according to risk category yielded significantly different AFS at 30 days (low-risk 5.2% vs. high-risk 38.8%, P<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients selected to undergo ThEmb for ATLI in native arteries, this risk score identified a group of patients with a 40% chance of death or major amputation at 30 days. The score can help to optimize the operative strategy, but further prospective validation is needed.


KEY WORDS: Ischemia - Embolectomy - Thromboembolism - Risk factors

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