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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2016 August;57(4):510-3


language: English

Thrombin injection and compression with removable guidewire in the treatment of postcatheterization femoral pseudoaneurysm

Roberto GABRIELLI 1, Maria S. ROSATI 2, Silvio VITALE 1, Andrea SIANI 1, Giovanni CASELLI 1

1 Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, “Policlinico Casilino”, Rome, Italy; 2 Department of Oncology, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy


BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of percutaneous thrombin treatment for iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (FAP) and to identify those criteria that may help to predict increased treatment failure risk and complications.
METHODS: A number of 32 iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms were treated with US-guided thrombin injection (group A), while four elderly patient with complex femoral pseudoaneurysm underwent compression assisted by removable “guidewire” (group B). Twenty-five were classified as simple (single lobe) and 11 as complex (at least two lobes with a single neck to the native vessel). Pseudoaneurysm volume, classification, thrombin dose, anticoagulation therapy status, and sheath size were considered independent prognostic factors.
RESULTS: All the 36 patients (pts) had initial complete femoral pseudoaneurysms thrombosis. The aneurysm was thrombosed on a Doppler ultrasound (US) follow-up in all the cases but four (group A), those who required the additional thrombin injection. A fatal complication occurred in one patient with complex FAP (group A).
CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data suggest that US-guided percutaneous thrombin injection is a safe and effective method to treat iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms. Simple iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms benefit a single injection of up to 500 units of topical thrombin. We recommend more caution in complex pseudoaneurysms treatment; it is preferable to perform thrombin injection first into the lobe which is not directly joined to the femoral artery. A longer bed rest and closer observation are mandatory during the subsequent 24 hours. If the lobe communicating with the femoral artery is still patent, it can be retreated. Alternatively, we propose a new strategy approach through compression assisted removable “guidewire”.

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