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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2015 June;56(3):383-91


language: English

Combining superficial femoral artery endovascular treatment with distal vein bypass

Marcucci G., Accrocca F., Gabrielli R., Antonelli R., Giordano A. G., De Vivo G., Siani A.

Unit of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Ospedale San Paolo, Civitavecchia, Rome, Italy


AIM: Significant strides have been made using endovascular solutions for the treatment of patients with peripheral vascular disease (PAD) and for tissue loss. But the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II classification states that surgery still remains the best solution for C and D lesions, though endovascular management of superficial femoral artery (SFA) can improve inflow for distal origin bypass grafts. Our aim was to evaluate the results of combining endovascular treatment of SFA with distal vein bypass in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) and great tissue loss or in the cases where the below-knee endoluminal techniques alone were unable to salvage limbs.
METHODS: A retrospective study of the combined interventions carried out from January 2006 and June 2013 was performed. Twenty-seven angioplasties or selective stentings of SFA combined with popliteal-distal bypass in 23 patients with stage 4, 5 or 6 Rutherford classification were performed. There were14 men and 9 women, four were bilateral. Mean age was 71.5 years (55-91); 21 (91.3%) were diabetic, and in these, there was almost always deep debridement of necrotic or infected tissue. In 17 cases (62.9%) SFA angioplasty was performed alone, a self-expendable stent was released in the other 10 (37.1%). Distal bypass originated from distal SFA in 5 cases (18.5%), from above-knee popliteal artery in 8 (29.6%) and from below-knee popliteal artery in 14 (51.8%). Reversed saphenous vein was used for bypass in all cases. The target vessel was the posterior tibial artery in 6 cases, anterior tibial artery in 10 and dorsalis pedis in eleven. Follow-up ranged from 4 months to 6 years (with a mean of 37 months).
RESULTS: There were no deaths, but two early graft failures and three major amputations during the perioperative period. Primary patency rate of both the endovascular SFA and the bypass was 81.6% (N.=22) and secondary patency was 88.8% (N.=24). Three years primary and secondary patency rate were, respectively, 74.1% (N.=20) and 81.6% (N.=22). One-year limb salvage rate was 88.8%, at three years was 86.1% and fifteen minor amputations were performed in 13 patients.
CONCLUSION: The endovascular treatment of SFA associated with surgical distal vein bypass is a useful and effective strategy in patients with severe lower extremity arterial disease. This strategy allows a good inflow on SFA in selected patients with the opportunity to perform shorter bypass, use of limited autologous conduit and good expectation of patency.

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