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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2008 October;49(5):571-89


language: English

Embolic protection for renal artery stenting

Henry M. 1, 2, Henry I. 3, Polydorou A. 4, Hugel M. 1, 2

1 Cardiology Practice, Nancy, France 2 Global Research Institute Apollo Clinic, Hyderabad, India 3 Bois-Bernard Policlionic, Bois-Bernard, France 4 Panteleimon General Hospital, Athens, Greece


A renal artery stenosis (RAS) is frequent and usually caused by atherosclerosis. Percutaneous renal artery angioplasty (PTRA) and stenting gives good immediate and long-term results. Concern has arisen in the postprocedural deterioration of the renal function (RF), which may occur in 20-40% of the patients therefore limiting the immediate benefits of the technique. Atheroembolism seems to play an important role in postprocedural deterioration. The authors postulated that the use of renal embolic protection devices could reduce the risk of renal embolism and avoid deterioration of the RF. One hundred forty-eight PTRA and stenting procedures were performed under protection in 121 hypertensive patients (M: 85), mean age: 64.5±11.8 years (22-87) with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Eleven patients had solitary kidneys and 48 had renal insufficiency. Both occlusion balloons (N=46) and filters (N=95) were used. Of the 95 filters, the new FiberNet EP system (Lumen Biomedical) was included. This filter has the ability to capture particles as small as 30-40 microns without compromising flow. Generated debris was then removed and analysed, and blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were followed. Immediate technical success: was achieved in 100% os the cases. 112/141 lesions were stented directly. Visible debris with Percusurge (Medtronic) was aspirated and removed under aspiration from all patients and in 80% of the cases with filters. Debris was aspirated in 100% of the cases completed with the FiberNet). The mean particulate retrieved with the Percusurge system was 98.1±60.0 µ with a mean diameter ranging from 201±76 m (38-6 206). Mean occlusion time was 6.55±2.46 min and mean time in situ (filters) 4.2±1.1 min. Five times more particulate was removed with the FiberNet than with current available filters. One acute RF deterioration was observed. The mean follow-up was 29.6±14 months and the mean creatinine level remained constant during follow-up. At 6 months (101 patients) one deterioration of the RF in a patient with renal insufficiency at baseline was observed, 25 improvements in patients with renal insufficiency were noted, and 73 stabilizations. In conclusion 99% of the patients were stabilized or improved. After 2 years (84 patients) 95% of the patients remained stabilized (N=60) or showed improvements (N=20), and 4 patients had deterioration of RF (5%). The preliminary results suggest the feasibility and safety of distal protection during renal interventions to protect against atheroembolism and consequential deterioration of RF after the procedure. The beneficial effects of this technique should be evaluated further in randomized studies.

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