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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS

Rivista di Medicina, Traumatologia e Psicologia dello Sport


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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 Jun 08

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07298-X

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

The use of steroids by gym athletes: an attempt to diagnose the problem scale and possible causes

Katarzyna GWIZDEK 1, Anna BRZĘK 2 , Monika BĄK-SOSNOWSKA 3, Anna DITTFELD 4, Andrzej KNAPIK 5, Damian ZIAJA 1

1 School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Department of Physiotherapy, Chair of Physiotherapy, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 2 School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Department of Kinesiology, Chair of Physiotherapy, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 3 School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Department of Psychology, Chair of Social Sciences and Humanities, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 4 Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland; 5 School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Department of Adapted Physical Activity and Sport, Chair of Physiotherapy Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland


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BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are said to be frequently used by both professional and amateur athletes. In addition to having a negative impact on health, steroids defy the concept of fair play.
DESIGN: observational study.
SETTING: other - Gyms.
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the scale of the problem related to using anabolic- androgenic steroids (AAS) by gym athletes and to analyze possible causes.
METHOD: The study involved 435 participants aged between 18-66 (mean age= x=27.49±7.48). Out of them, 61.4% were male and 38.6% were female. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group A included 154 (35.4%) amateur and recreational athletes and group B included 281 (64.6%) professional athletes concerned with fitness, bodybuilding and powerlifting. A survey prepared by the authors was conducted in the study, and it consisted of 23 closed questions about AAS use, body confidence, and exercise dependence. In addition, a stadiometer and a body composition analyzer were utilized to take necessary measurements.
RESULTS: Between 1-23% of group A participants admitted to using AAS. For group B, it was between 7-30%. Males were reported to use AAS more frequently than females in both groups. With regard to group A, differences in body confidence and exercise dependence were found between males using and not using AAS. Exercise dependence was reported to be different between group A and group B participants. This was true for both males and females. Also, it was shown that group A and group B females differed in terms of metabolic age, body mass and body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass, muscle mass, and total body water).
CONCLUSIONS: Most gym athletes do not use AAS. Amateur athletes tend to use AAS more frequently than professional athletes. Factors that contribute to AAS use are: male gender, low body confidence, young age, and long training.


KEY WORDS: AAS - Gym athletes - Metabolic age - Fat mass - Muscle mass

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Gwizdek K, Brzęk A, Bąk-Sosnowska M, Dittfeld A, Knapik A, Ziaja D. The use of steroids by gym athletes: an attempt to diagnose the problem scale and possible causes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017 Jun 08. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07298-X

Corresponding author e-mail

aniabrzek@interia.pl