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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
Rivista di Medicina, Traumatologia e Psicologia dello Sport
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES PSYCHOLOGY
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2016 September;56(9):1077-85
Perfectionism and burnout in women professional golfers
Kyoung D. KANG 1, 5, James C. HANNON 2, Andrew HARVESON 2, Jea W. LEE 3, Jea J. NAM 4, Doug H. HAN 5 ✉
1 Department of Industry Academic Cooperation, Chung Ang University, Seoul, Korea; 2 Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3 Department of Sports, Chung Ang University, An Sung, South Korea; 4 Department of Golf, Korea Golf University, Hoeng Seong, South Korea; 5 Department of Psychiatry, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
BACKGROUND: Perfectionism and burnout have been thought to affect performance in sports. The aim of current study was to analyze differences between members of the Korean Ladies Professional Association (KLPGA) and non-KLPGA golfers as they relate to perfectionism, burnout and commitment as well as analyze the relationship between the same psychological factors and golf score during a 3-day professional golf tournament.
METHODS: Participants were 245 LPGA athletes and 233 non-LPGA athletes, all of whom were members of the Korean Golf Association. Participants were assessed using Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Athletes Burnout Questionnaires, Expansion of Sports Commitment Model and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y.
RESULTS: Perfectionism (t=48.47, P<0.001) and burnout (t=3.5, P=0.01) scores in the KLPGA group were lower than those observed in the non-KLPGA group (Mann-Whitney U Test). Sport devaluation of burnout (t=3.84, P<0.001) was also lower in the KLPGA group than the non-KLPGA group (Mann-Whitney U Test). Perfectionism, burnout, and psychological factors were also found to be associated with golf scores during a 3-day professional golf tournament. There were significant differences in score change patterns from the first 9-holes of round 1 (R1) to the last 9-holes of R1 (F=10.92, P=0.003), as well as from the first 9-holes of R3 to the last 9-holes of R3 (F=4.47, P=0.04) between the LPGA top 10 group and LPGA non-top 10 group (repeated measures ANOVA). First 9-hole scores of R1 were positively correlated with total perfectionism (r=0.58, P=0.001), total burnout (r=0.50, P=0.008), and state anxiety (r=0.50, P=0.0049) (spearman correlation).
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that golfers seeking to attain high levels of performance must consider the importance of the mental aspect of the game of golf, and find ways to minimize stress and perfectionist strivings.