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Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
Online ISSN 1827-1928
BODY COMPOSITION, NUTRITION
Clark J. E.
Division of Mathematics, Science and Health Careers, Department of Science, Manchester Community College, Manchester, CT, USA
With the epidemic rise in obesity and related health issues in children and adolescents there have been numerous types of treatments established to slow or reverse this trend. In an effort to examine the effect of responses to the methods used for treatment, a systematic review of the current literature was performed. From 32 included studies, 120 distinct treatment groups were selected based on the treatment methods used to assess the effect for that treatment, with effect for each treatment based on the effect size (ES) for eliciting changes in body morphology, blood lipid profiles, and hormones (insulin, leptin, adiponectin) that have been linked to metabolic issues. Additionally, treatments were compared for effectiveness in eliciting changes in the aerobic capacity and for eliciting changes in caloric balance. In total three distinct ES patterns were observed, the first based on treatment and therapeutic ES the use of patterns of physical activity and exercise (endurance, ET, or resistance, RT) are more effective than dieting alone. The second, including organized exercise, showed to be a more effective treatment than a general physical activity program. The third including those treatments that were most effective in eliciting a caloric deficit which did not show the greatest impact on effectiveness of improving health status (e.g., hormone levels, blood lipids, and cardiorespiratory fitness). Thus, children and adolescent who are overweight should be encouraged to engage in organized bouts of physical activity that is meant to establish chronic stimulus for physiological response to the exercise stimulus and not rely solely on the establishment of an acute caloric deficit.