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Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
Online ISSN 1827-1928
Knackstedt C. 1, Hildebrandt U. 2, Schmidt K. 2, Syrocki L. 2, Lang A. 2, Bjarnason-Wehrens B. 2, Schummers G. 3, Stapf D. 3, 4, Becker M. 4, Predel H. G. 2
1 Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands;
2 Institute of Cardiology and Sports Medicine, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany;
3 TomTec Imaging Systems, Unterschleissheim, Germany;
4 Department of Cardiology, Pneumology and Angiology, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
AIM: There is a longstanding debate over the long-term effect of intensive endurance training on cardiac function. Usually, echocardiography has been used as a global evaluation of left ventricular (LV) or right ventricular (RV) function and dimensions. Recently, speckle tracking strain (ST) has provided an analysis of regional RV and LV function. Thus, the intention of the study was to carefully evaluate cardiac function in a group of former world class swimmers applying longitudinal strain (LS) and circumferential strain (CS) analysis.
METHODS: Twelve athletes (45±1.5 years) of a former training group involved in high intensity endurance training were examined 24.9±4.3 years after the end of their active swimming career. An echocardiography was performed and LV function was analyzed based on CS and LS. Also, LS was evaluated for the RV. All measurements were performed for epicardium and endocardium independently.
RESULTS: Mean LV endocardial LS was -20.0±6.3 and epicardial LS -20.2±6.2. LV endocardial CS was -21.3±8.0 and epicardial CS -11.9±4.2. RV endocardial LS had a mean value of -26.4±6.1 and epicardial LS of -28.2±5.6.
CONCLUSION: Twenty-five years after the cessation of endurance training, there was no evidence of a deterioration of RV or LV function as values for RV and LV strain measurements were within normal ranges.