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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
Rivista di Medicina, Traumatologia e Psicologia dello Sport
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2015 Luglio-Agosto;55(7-8):787-96
Smoking, activity level and exercise test outcomes in a young population sample without cardiopulmonary disease
Vozoris N. T. 1, O’donnell D. E. 2 ✉
1 Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada;
2 Division of Respirology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kingston General Hospital, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
AIM: Whether reduced activity level and exercise intolerance precede the clinical diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disorders in smokers is not known. We examined activity level and exercise test outcomes in a young population-based sample without overt cardiopulmonary disease, differentiating by smoking history.
METHODS: This was a multiyear cross-sectional study using United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999-2004. Self-reported activity level and incremental exercise treadmill testing were obtained on survey participants ages 20-49 years, excluding individuals with cardio-pulmonary disease.
RESULTS: Three thousand seven hundred and one individuals completed exercise testing. Compared to never smokers, current smokers with >10 pack years reported significantly higher odds of little or no recreation, sport, or physical activity (adjusted OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.12-2.35). Mean perceived exertion ratings (Borg 6-20) at an estimated standardized workload were significantly greater among current smokers (18.3-18.6) compared to never (17.3) and former smokers (17.9) (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportions of individuals across estimated peak oxygen uptake categories among the groups after adjusting for age and sex. Among former smokers, increasing duration of smoking abstinence was associated with significantly lower likelihood of low estimated peak oxygen uptake categorization (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Among young individuals without overt cardiopulmonary disease, current smokers had reduced daily activity and higher perceived exertion ratings. Besides supporting early smoking cessation, these results set the stage for future studies that examine mechanisms of activity restriction in young smokers and the utility of measures of activity restriction in the earlier diagnosis of smoking-related diseases.