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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2014 October;54(5):559-65

lingua: Inglese

Comparison of the effects of active, passive and mixed warm ups on swimming performance

Adams S., Psycharakis S. G.

School of Life Sport & Social Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK


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AIM: The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of an active (AWU), passive (PWU) and mixed warm up (MWU) on swimming performance.
METHODS: Eight male competitive swimmers completed each type of WU and, following a 20-minute rest, performed a maximum 100m test on their specialised stroke. The order of WUs was randomized and there was a 7-day period between subsequent testing sessions. The time taken to complete the 100m trial was the performance measure. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured immediately post WU, while heart rate (HR) was measured pre and post WU and pre and post the maximum swim. During the 20-minute rest, the swimmers’ psychological state was assessed with the CSAI-2 questionnaire.
RESULTS: Post WU HR and RPE had the lowest values following the AWU and the highest values following the PWU (P<0.01). No other significant differences were found in any variables. Pre performance HR increased significantly relative to pre WU HR for all conditions (P≤0.01). Swimmers had relatively low levels of anxiety and modest to high levels of self confidence for all conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: No WU appeared to be superior to the others with respect to swimming performance. The MWU produced nearly identical values to the AWU for most variables, and was therefore found to be an appropriate alternative WU type that swimmers may use before competition. The PWU also seemed to be appropriate, but the somewhat worse performance and lower cognitive anxiety and self confidence scores recorded, albeit non-significant, suggested that more swimmers and distances are tested before any firm conclusions regarding its effectiveness can be drawn.

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S.Psycharakis@napier.ac.uk