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Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
Online ISSN 1827-1928
Keeley D. W. 1, Mcclary M. A. 1, Oliver G. D. 2, Dougherty C. P. 3
1 Department of Human Performance, Dance, and Recreation, New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM, USA;
2 Department of Health Science, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA;
3 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Agility Center Orthopedics, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Aim: The role of the long head of the biceps brachii (LHBB) is vital in maintaining stability of the glenohumeral joint during baseball pitching. Unfortunately the impact of extended pitching on the ability of the LHBB to maintain its function is not currently known. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the magnitude of muscle oxyhemoglobin saturation in the biceps brachii, indicated as tissue saturation index (TSI%), before and following an extended pitching performance.
Methods: Data describing the magnitude of TSI% in the long head of the biceps brachii (LHBB) were collected from 20 pitchers (12.5±2.1 years; 151.2±11 cm; 46.7±11.4 kg). TSI% was determined using a wireless muscle oximeter based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The oximeter utilized in this study measured oxy, de-oxy, and total hemoglobin as well as tissue saturation.
Results: Results revealed that at the conclusion of the simulated game, participants experienced an 11.8% decrease in TSI% at contraction onset (P<0.05), a 5.9% decrease in TSI% at contraction offset (P<0.05), but no difference in TSI% utilized throughout the 5 s isometric contraction. Participants demonstrated a 5.9% decrease in change score for TSI% following the conclusion of the simulated game which did not differ significantly when compared to the beginning of the simulated game (P>0.05).
Conclusion: These results indicate that young pitchers are not at risk of decreased LHBB function due to lower TSI%. However, the observation of significantly lower levels associated with TSI% following the simulated game reveal that further study into these parameters is warranted in older pitchers as they commonly throw greater than 85 pitches.