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Original articles  SPORT PSYCHOLOGY

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2004 March;44(1):77-86

lingua: Inglese

The characteristics and effects of motivational music in exercise settings: the possible influence of gender, age, frequency of attendance, and time of attendance

Priest D. L., Karageorghis C. I., Sharp N. C. C.

Depart­ment of ­Sport Sci­ences Brunel Uni­ver­sity, ­West ­London, UK


Aim. The pur­pose of the ­present ­study was to inves­ti­gate the char­ac­ter­is­tics and ­effects of moti­va­tional ­music in ­British gym­nasia. The sec­on­dary pur­pose was to deter­mine ­whether the char­ac­ter­is­tics and ­effects of moti­va­tional ­music ­were invar­iant in rela­tion to ­gender, age, fre­quency of gym­na­sium atten­dance, and the ­time of day at ­which exer­cise par­tic­i­pants ­attended gym­nasia.
­Methods. Par­tic­i­pants (n=532) ­from 29 ­David ­Lloyd Leisure exer­cise facil­ities ­across ­Britain ­responded to a ques­tion­naire ­that was ­designed to ­assess ­music pref­er­ences ­during exer­cise via 2 ­open-­ended ques­tions and 1 ­scaled-­response ­item.
­Results. A con­tent anal­ysis of the ques­tion­naire ­data ­yielded 45 ana­lytic prop­er­ties ­that ­were ­grouped ­into the fol­lowing cat­e­go­ries: spe­cific ­music fac­tors, gen­eral ­music fac­tors, ­music pro­gramme fac­tors, ­delivery fac­tors, tele­visual fac­tors, per­sonal fac­tors, con­tex­tual fac­tors, and psy­cho­phys­ical ­response fac­tors. The rel­a­tive inci­dence of ­these ana­lytic prop­er­ties ­across ­gender ­groups (­male/­female), age ­groups (16-26 y, 27-34 y, 35-45 y, 46+ y), fre­quency of atten­dance ­groups (low, ­medium, ­high), and ­time of atten­dance ­groups (­morning, after­noon, eve­ning) was ­tested by use of χ2 anal­yses. Of the per­sonal var­i­ables ­tested, age ­exerted the ­greatest influ­ence on ­musical pref­er­ence ­during exer­cise; ­older par­tic­i­pants ­expressed a pref­er­ence for ­quieter, ­slower, and gen­er­ally ­less ­overtly stim­u­la­tive ­music.
Con­clu­sion. ­Music pro­grammes ­that are pre­scribed to accom­pany exer­cise ­should be ­varied in ­terms of ­musical ­idiom and ­date of ­release. ­Such pro­grammes ­will ­account for the pref­er­ences of dif­ferent ­groups of exer­cise par­tic­i­pants ­that ­attend gym­nasia at dif­ferent ­times of the day. Fur­ther, the ­music ­chosen ­should be char­ac­ter­ised by a ­strong rhyth­mical com­po­nent.

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