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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
Rivista di Medicina, Traumatologia e Psicologia dello Sport
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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Original articles SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2002 June;42(2):233-8
Motives for exercise participation as predictors of exercise dependence among endurance athletes
Hamer M., Karageorghis C. I. *, Vlachopoulos S. P. **
From the Physical Activity and Health Research Unit, De Montfort University, Bedford, United Kingdom
*Department of Sport Sciences, Brunel University Middlesex, United Kingdom
**Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki at Serres, Greece
Background. To investigate whether motives for exercise participation predicted exercise dependence (ED) among endurance athletes. The rationale for the study centred upon a test of the affect regulation model utilising constructs that form part of the Self-Determination Theory as predictors of ED. It was hypothesised that non self-determined motivation, specifically external regulation, would be predictive of ED.
Methods. Design: correlational design, with a time gap between predictor and dependent variables. Settings: competitive sports environment. Participants: 188 competitive endurance athletes were recruited from amateur sports clubs. Interventions: none. Measures: the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire was administered before a training session to measure the predictor variables (motives for exercise participation), and the Running Addiction Scale was administered before a similar training session, one week later, to measure the dependent variable (ED).
Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor variable of ED was introjected regulation (β=0.29, p<0.001), followed by identified regulation (β=0.19, p<0.05). External regulation and intrinsic motivation were weak and non-significant predictors. The total variance in ED explained by the exercise participation motives was 15% (R2= 0.15).
Conclusions. ED was predicted by motives that did not support the tenets of the affect regulation model. Results are discussed in light of the potential influence of exercise participation motives on ED and their implications for intervention strategies and diagnosis of the ED syndrome.