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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2000 December;40(4):350-5

lingua: Inglese

Nutrition sur­vey in ­elite rhyth­mic gym­nasts

Cupisti A., D'Alessandro C., Castrogiovanni S., Barale A., Morelli E.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy


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Background. Young ­female rhyth­mic gym­nasts ­have ­been iden­ti­fied as a poten­tial ­risk ­group for mal­nu­tri­tion ­because of ­their atti­tude of ­weight reduc­tion and lean­ness.
Methods. This ­study ­aimed to ­assess the die­tary prac­tic­es of 20 rhyth­mic gym­nasts of the Italian nation­al ­team, on the ­basis of a ­three-day ­food ­records col­lect­ed by clin­i­cal inter­view. Twenty-­four age-­matched non-ath­let­ic ­females ­served as con­trols.
Results. The report­ed ener­gy ­intake was sim­i­lar in gym­nasts and con­trols (28.5±5.6 vs 28.2±7.8 kcal/kg b.w., per day), but ­less ­than the rec­om­mend­ed and the esti­mat­ed require­ments. Energy ­intake ­from car­bo­hy­drates was high­er (53±6 vs 49±6%, p<0.05) and ­that ­from lip­ids low­er (31±6 vs 34±4%, p<0.05) in gym­nasts ­than in con­trols. In the for­mer the ener­gy sup­ply ­from break­fast was high­er (24±2 vs 16±4%, p<0.001) and ­from ­snacks was low­er (8±9 vs 17±10%, p<0.01). Gymnasts ­also dis­tin­guished ­from con­trols for low­er cho­les­te­rol and sat­u­rat­ed fat­ty ­acid ­intake, and for high­er ­fibre (14±5 vs 9±2 g/1000 kcal, p<0.001) and Vitamin A die­tary con­tent. Calcium, ­iron and ­zinc ­intake ­were ­less ­than 100% RDA in ­both ­groups.
Conclusions. In ­some ­ways, die­tary prac­tic­es of rhyth­mic gym­nasts ­meet nutri­tion­al rec­om­men­da­tions ­more ­than ­those of non ath­let­ic con­trols, ­though dis­crep­an­cy ­between report­ed ener­gy ­intake and esti­mat­ed ener­gy require­ment ­exists. Suboptimal cal­cium, ­iron and ­zinc ­intake ­were ­observed ­both in gym­nasts and in con­trols, ­hence min­er­als sup­ple­men­ta­tion ­could be ­required. The die­tary atti­tude ­could be regard­ed as a pos­i­tive ­aspect of rhyth­mic gym­nas­tics, pro­vid­ed ath­letes, phy­si­cians and coach­es cor­rect die­tary ­errors and ­avoid exces­sive ­food restric­tions.

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