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Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
Online ISSN 1827-1928
Stauch M., Liu Y., Giesler M., Lehmann M.
Department of Sports Medicine, Medizinische Universitätsklinik Ulm, Germany
Background. Regular physical activity plays a role in preventive medicine. Our study aimed at establishing the duration of different levels of exercise intensity during a round of golf.
Methods. Participants: we studied 21 male and 9 female golfers (mean age 53±11 and 54±13 years respectively) volunteering for a round of golf on a hilly course. Measures: we recorded mean heart rate (HR) of every 15 seconds. Blood pressure was taken on each tee. Maximum HR (HRmax) reserve of each subject was calculated from the difference between pre-exercise and maximum HR attained during a test to volitional exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. A percentage of this value was added to the resting HR and was expressed as a percentage of HRmax reserve.
Results. Before start mean HR (±SD) was 86±11 beats per minute (BPM), during play 113±18, and during rest after play 100±24 BPM. Mean maximal HR of holes were 135±21 BPM. Mean systolic blood pressure was 145±30 before play, 137±31 on tees during play and 119±15 mmHg after play. A mean of 82±51 minutes was spent at 50-74% of HRmax reserve. 21±27 and 23±38 minutes were spent in the two higher intensity classes. An average of 106±77 minutes were spent at or above the individual heart rate equivalent of 100 W, the mean heart rate for this time was 128±17 BPM. Creatine kinase (+47%; p<0.001), uric acid (+9%; p<0.001) and HDL-cholesterol (+6%; p<0.05) increased, triglycerides decreased by 18% (p<0.01).
Conclusions. The HR level during the golfround not using an electric cart relative to the maximum attained on the ergometer reaches the exercise intensity of 50 to >85% HRmax reserve for a mean of over 2 hours, much longer than the 20-60 min recommended for endurance training.