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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1999 June;39(2):154-9

lingua: Inglese

Regional and ­total ­body ­bone min­er­al den­sity in ­elite col­le­giate ­male swim­mers

Taaffe D. R. 1, 2, Marcus R. 1

1 Muskuloskeletal Research Laboratory, Aging Study Unit, Geriatric Research, Education & Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Palo Alto, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, California, USA;
2 Human Movement Studies Unit, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, Australia


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Background. To exam­ine the ­role of ­long-­term swim­ming exer­cise on region­al and ­total ­body ­bone min­er­al den­sity (BMD) in men.
Methods. Experimental ­design: Cross-sec­tion­al. Setting: Musculoskeletal ­research labor­a­to­ry at a med­i­cal cen­ter. Participants: We com­pared ­elite col­le­giate swim­mers (n=11) to age-, ­weight-, and ­height-­matched non-ath­let­ic con­trols (n=11).
Measures: BMD (g/cm2) of the lum­bar ­spine (L2-4), prox­i­mal ­femur (femo­ral ­neck, tro­chant­er, Ward’s tri­an­gle), ­total ­body and var­i­ous sub­re­gions of the ­total ­body, as ­well as region­al and ­total ­body fat and ­bone min­er­al-­free ­lean ­mass (LM) was ­assessed by ­dual-ener­gy X-ray absorp­tiom­e­try (DXA, Hologic QDR 1000/W).
Results. Swimmers, who com­menced train­ing at 10.7±3.7 yrs (mean±SD) and ­trained for 24.7±4.2 hrs per ­week, had a great­er ­amount of LM (p<0.05), low­er fat ­mass (p<0.001) and per­cent ­body fat (9.5 vs 16.2%, p<0.001) ­than con­trols. There was no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence ­between ­groups for region­al or ­total ­body BMD. In step­wise mul­ti­ple regres­sion anal­y­sis, ­body ­weight was a con­sis­tent inde­pen­dent pre­dic­tor of region­al and ­total ­body BMD.
Conclusions. These ­results sug­gest ­that ­long-­term swim­ming is not an oste­o­gen­ic ­mode of train­ing in col­lege-­aged ­males. This sup­ports our pre­vi­ous find­ings in ­young ­female swim­mers who dis­played no ­bone ­mass ben­e­fits ­despite ­long-stand­ing ath­let­ic train­ing.

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