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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
Rivista di Medicina, Traumatologia e Psicologia dello Sport
Indexed/Abstracted in: Chemical Abstracts, CINAHL, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,111
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1998 September;38(3):258-61
The impact of soccer training on the immune system
Rebelo A. N. 1, Candeias J. R. 2, Fraga M. M. 2, Duarte J. A. R. 1, Soares J. M. C. 1, Magalhaes C. 2, Torrinha J. A. 2
1 Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Porto, Portugal;
2 Immunology Department, S. João Hospital, Porto, Portugal
Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the level of some immune markers changed in soccer players during pre-season and during playing-season.
Design. An observational study for one soccer season (one year).
Setting. Professional soccer players.
Participants. Thirteen professional soccer players (age: 26.3±3.7 years).
Measures. The effect of 11 months of soccer training sessions and matches on circulating leukocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations was investigated. Blood samples were taken before the season and also 6 weeks, 6 months and 11 months later. All samples were taken at 08:00h.
Results. Total lymphocyte counts did not change in all samples. During the pre-season, however, the concentrations of some inflammatory lymphocyte subpopulations were changed: CD4CD45RA+ was elevated and CD57 and CD8CD57 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05), At the end of the competitive period, CD4 and CD8 were increased. At the end of the season there were significant changes in some immune cells: total leukocyte and neutrophil number and CD8+ cell concentration was increased compared to pre-season values and the CD4/CD8 ratio was decreased.
Conclusions. The results suggest that athletes exposed to a long-term training periods can exhibit variations in some immune cells. The clinical significance of these variations requires more detailed investigation.