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Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 1,6
Online ISSN 1827-1898
Mariotta S., Giuffreda E., Tramontano F., Treggiari S. *, Ricci A., Schmid G.
From the Section of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome
*Thoracic Surgery Unit, S. Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy
Background. Pulmonary mycetoma is a characteristic clinical-radiological lesion due to colonization of aspergillus or candida species in pre-existing pulmonary cavities following a number of diseases.
Methods. We revisited 27 records of such admitted patients (19 M, 8 F; range age 16-27 yrs) analysing diagnostic approach and therapy. Predisposing conditions were sequelae of tuberculosis or lung abscess, bronchiectasis, bullous emphysema, leukaemia/ lymphoma, diabetes mellitus, corticosteroids and/or immunesuppressant administration and antiblastic chemotherapy. All patients had a characteristic chest X-ray and the most common symptoms were cough and haemoptysis. Diagnosis of pulmonary mycetoma was based on positive sputum culture for aspergillus or candida species and/or positive result for aspergillus precipitin test. Eleven patients received only medical treatment, eight pts only a surgical one and eight patients both medical and surgical ones. Antifungal drugs administered were itraconazole or amphotericin B or fluconazole.
Results. In the follow-up, six out of eleven patients who had received only medical treatment, cannot be found; five patients or their relatives were interviewed by phone: two of them enjoyed good health and three had died. Sixteen patients underwent thoracic surgery and one of them died because of postsurgical complications. In the follow-up, only nine patients out of this last group were interviewed by phone 2 to 8 years after surgery: seven of them enjoyed good health while two patients had died because of disease not related to pulmonary mycetoma.
Conclusions. Aspergilloma treatment is related to the extension of disease and clinical conditions of patients but surgical resection associated with drug administration, when possible, is the treatment of choice.