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Rivista di Pediatria, Neonatologia, Medicina dell’Adolescenza
e Neuropsichiatria Infantile
Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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Minerva Pediatrica 2015 Jun 04
Headache and psychological disorders in children and adolescents: a cross-generational study
Galli F. 1, 2, Caputi M. 3, Gallucci M. 4, Termine C. 5, Chiappedi M. 2, Balottin U. 2, 6 ✉
1 Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Italy;
2 Headache Science Center and Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, ‘‘C. Mondino National Institute of Neurology’’ Foundation, IRCCS, Pavia, Italy;
3 Faculty of Psychology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy;
4 Department of Psychology, University of Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy;
5 Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy;
6 Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
BACKGROUND: Headache and psychopathology (especially anxiety and mood disorders) are comorbid across the life span. The present study is a clinical contribution in the direction of studying the familial recurrence of headache, and the interplay of headache and psychopathology in children.
METHODS: The clinical sample is composed by 130 headache patients (53 boys and 77 girls, age range 8-18), while the control groups is composed by 87 healthy subjects from the general population (39 boys and 48 girls, age range 8-18). A structured interview according to International Classification for Headache Disorders-II criteria has been administered to the clinical group; the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA) have been used in order to assess psychopathology in both groups.
RESULTS: The recurrence of headache in family members is confirmed by the present study, albeit limited to paternal side, χ2(4, N = 130) = 10.47, p = .033. Results also showed that scores obtained by the clinical sample in CBCL and SAFA are generally higher than scores obtained by the control group, but without differences between headache sub-types. Finally, internalizing symptoms (anxiety and depression) in children correlate with mothers’ point of view, r ≥ .23, p < .05, outlining a specific attunement between headache patients and their mothers.
CONCLUSION: Headache runs in families, with high level of psychological disorders. Mothers are particularly attuned with the psychological needs of their headache children.