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Rivista di Ostetricia e Ginecologia
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Minerva Ginecologica 2016 February;68(1):29-36
Risk factors for cerebral palsy in premature infants identified during the pre and perinatal periods: a case-control study
Emilia ANDRADE 1, Edward ARAUJO JÚNIOR 2, Liliam C. ROLO 2, Fabricio DA SILVA COSTA 1, 3 ✉
1 Department of Public Health State, University of Ceará (UECE), Fortaleza‑CE, Brazil; 2 Department of Obstetrics, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, (EPM‑UNIFESP), São Paulo‑SP, Brazil; 3 Department of Perinatal Medicine, Royal Women’s Hospital and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to assess the pre and perinatal risk factors for cerebral palsy in premature infants, comparing them with full-term infants.
METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional cohort study on 48 infants between four and eight months of life, of whom 20 were born prematurely (<37 weeks of gestational age) and 28 at full term (37 to 42 weeks). A questionnaire was used, which investigated maternal reproductive, obstetric and neonatal factors, along with an evaluation scale for neurosensory-motor development of infants at risk of neuromotor alterations. For the statistical analysis, the Student’s t, chi-square, Fisher’s exact and Cramer’s V tests were used.
RESULTS: All the newborns that were small for their gestational age (35%) were in the premature group (P=0.001). Hyperbilirubinemia (P=0.000), anemia (P=0.009), respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.000) and periventricular hemorrhage (P=0.025) were more frequent in the premature newborn group. Phototherapy and blood transfusion were more frequent among the premature infants: 70.0% vs. 25.0% (P=0.002) and 20.0% vs. 0.0% (P=0.025), respectively. Among the premature infants, 50.0% presented neuromotor development alterations, against only 14.3% of the full-term infants.
CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity is an important risk factor for the development of neurosensory-motor alterations that are suggestive of cerebral palsy.