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Rivista di Ostetricia e Ginecologia
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Minerva Ginecologica 2014 Agosto;66(4):365-75
Premenstrual syndrome and beyond: lifestyle, nutrition, and personal facts
Bianco V. 1, Cestari A. M. 2, Casati D. 1, Cipriani S. 3, Radici G. 4, Valente I. 4 ✉
1 Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University School of Medicine, V. Buzzi Hospital, Milan, Italy;
2 Ospedale Civile di Sassuolo SpA, Sassuolo, Modena, Italy;
3 Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Neonatology, IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy;
4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, V. Buzzi Hospital, Milan, Italy
AIM: The aim was to study prevalence of menstrual symptoms and their presenting patterns, and to assess nutrition and behaviours correlates.
METHODS: The study enrolled 108 women, who were prospectively assessed for menstrual symptoms; a 212 items questionnaire about lifestyle and nutrition was administered. Diagnosis and intensity of symptoms were separately compared for dietary and other factors. The χ2 test or Fisher exact test as required and a multivariate analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Seventeen percent of the sample reported no symptoms; core PMD was diagnosed in 14%, and related to symptoms of moderate intensity, to late menarche, irregular, long cycles, dysmenorrhoea, and to lower intake of complex carbohydrates, fibers, calcium; non-cyclical pattern in 27%, and related to symptoms of severe intensity, to young age, unemployed, to poor health, stress, traumatic events, abnormal BMI, to long, heavy menses, to lower intake of fibers, magnesium, vitamin B6, and to higher intake of fat, proteins, sodium, caffeine; variant PMD-premenstrual exacerbation in 42%, and related to symptoms of severe – moderate intensity, to young age, students, unemployed, sedentary work, abnormal BMI, stress, to cycle irregularities, heavy menses, to higher intake of simple sugars and sodium, and to lower intake of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B6. Regardless of diagnosis, severe intensity of symptoms was associated with young age /students (P<0.001), lower education, unemployed, smoke, sedentary work, poor health, stress, heavy menses (P<0.01), dysmenorrhea, more unfavorable and less favorable nutrients.
CONCLUSION: Lifestyle, nutrition, and general health considerations seem to be important issues in the management of menstrual symptoms, prospective symptoms chart being mandatory for diagnosis.