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Minerva Endocrinologica 2014 December;39(4):245-59

lingua: Inglese

Pituitary apoplexy: managing the life-threatening condition associated with pituitary adenomas

Witek P.

Department of Endocrinology and Isotope Therapy, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland


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Pituitary tumor apoplexy is one of a few life-threatening conditions in patients with pituitary adenomas. The very low incidence of this complication hinders formulation of widespread guidelines on diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article presents current opinions on epidemiology, risk factors, clinical signs and symptoms, also the difficulties in selecting appropriate therapeutic management. The paper has focused particularly on making decisions regarding surgical or conservative treatment in pituitary tumor apoplexy. Also the consequences of these decisions based on the key literature references. The article presents endocrine and neuro-ophthalmic consequences of previous pituitary tumor apoplexy with the key management principles for the follow-up period.

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pwitek@wim.mil.pl