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Rivista di Biologia Molecolare e Biotecnologie
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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BIOREMEDIATION - Part I
Minerva Biotecnologica 2001 March;13(1):69-72
A future role for the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil remediation: a chance for small-medium enterprises?
Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prohonice, Czech Republic
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), the important root symbionts, should be regarded as a vital component of the phytoremediation systems. They are able to take active or passive part in phytoextraction, phytodegradation or phytostabilisation. Mycorrhiza can play a role in uptake of contaminants and their translocation through plant or in stimulating microbial activities in the rhizosphere. The major AMF structure is the extracardial mycelium (ERM) radiating from the roots into the soil. The mechanism of remediation may consist in pollulants biosorption on the surface of the ERM or in its potential to harbour specific bacteria and provide favourable niche for bioaugmentation micro-organisms. Sequestration of heavy metals within ERM hyphae was found as well as positive effects of AMF of PAHs degradation. Synergistic effects of AMF and bacteria leads to potential application of multifunctional products incorporating a range of micro-organisms required for bioremediation. Most importantly the AMF facilitaty facilitate the formation of plant cover and improve plant fitness. Application of AMF as supportive agents for phytoremediation can alleviate some limitation of phytoremediation processes, can increase the ability to withstand environmental stress, increase resistance to drought, pathogens and ameliorate toxicity of pollulants. An appropriate strategy for application of mycorrhizal products in contaminated soils seems to the tuning of specific products (mixtures of stress-tolerant indigenous fungi-adapted to target environment) rather than use of generic product. Using AMF for revegetation of contaminated holds a great market potential for the small-medium enterprises producing and applying mycorrhizal products. However, knowledge should still be extended regarding the AMF role in bioremediation. A great attempt should also be undertaken to increase awareness of potential end-users regarding functions and impacts of mycorrhiza in phytoremediation processes.