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Rivista di Biologia Molecolare e Biotecnologie

Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,246

Periodicità: Trimestrale

ISSN 1120-4826

Online ISSN 1827-160X


Minerva Biotecnologica 2001 Marzo;13(1):5-12


Basic prin­ci­ples, ­agents and fea­sibil­ity of bio­re­me­di­a­tion of ­soil pol­lut­ed by organ­ic com­pounds

Gianfreda L. 1, Nannipieri P. 2

1 Dipartimento di ­Scienze Chimico-Agrarie, Università ­degli Studi «Federico II», Napoli, Portici, Italy;
2 Dipartimento del­la Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione del­la Pianta, Università ­di Firenze, Firenze, Italy

Soil bio­re­me­di­a­tion is a rap­id­ly devel­op­ing ­field due to its poten­tial for effec­tive and inex­pen­sive clean­up of a ­broad ­range of inor­gan­ic and organ­ic pol­lu­tants. It usu­al­ly ­refers to the use of bio­log­i­cal pro­cess­es ­that trans­form pol­lu­tants to innoc­u­ous prod­ucts and micro­or­gan­isms, ­plants and ­enzymes can pro­mote ­these pro­cess­es. In the ­case of the deg­ra­da­tion of an organ­ic pol­lu­tant, it is pos­sible to ­increase the deg­ra­da­tion ­rates by inoc­u­lat­ing spe­cif­ic micro­bi­al spe­cies (bio­aug­men­ta­tion) ­into the pol­lut­ed ­soil or stim­u­lat­ing the activ­ity of indig­e­nous micro­bi­al pop­u­la­tions (bio­stim­u­la­tion) by increas­ing nutri­ent con­cen­tra­tions and adjust­ing ­redox con­di­tions. Enzymes can be ­used to detox­i­fy pes­ti­cide-pol­lut­ed ­soils if the prod­uct of the reac­tion is ­less tox­ic ­than the pol­lu­tant mole­cule. Plants can be ­used to ­restore pol­lut­ed ­soils and ­this pro­cess is ­called phy­tor­e­me­di­a­tion. The gen­er­al strat­e­gies for phy­tor­e­me­di­a­tion ­include: 1) phy­toex­trac­tion, ­with the accu­mu­la­tion of the pol­lu­tant ­into ­shoots; 2) phy­to­deg­ra­da­tion, the pol­lu­tant is tak­en up and degrad­ed by ­plant ­enzymes; 3) phy­to­vol­a­til­iza­tion, the pol­lu­tant is tak­en up and trans­ferred to air via ­plant. However, it is ­believed ­that the ­most suc­cess­ful strat­e­gy in the reme­di­a­tion of organ­ic pol­lut­ed ­soils is the use of the ­plant-rhiz­o­sphere ­system. Through rhiz­o­dep­o­si­tion ­plants can stim­u­late the micro­bi­o­ta of the rhiz­o­sphere ­soil to mark­ed­ly ­increase the deg­ra­da­tion of the organ­ic pol­lu­tant. A suc­cess­ful bio­re­me­di­a­tion ­requires a) to under­stand the ecol­o­gy, the phys­iol­o­gy and the evo­lu­tion of micro­or­gan­isms ­involved in the trans­for­ma­tion of the pol­lu­tant; b) to ­know the bio­geo­chem­i­cal pro­cess­es ­involved in the ­plant-­based reme­di­a­tion ­approach. Engineering ­design and appli­ca­tion, as ­well as engi­neer­ing and reg­u­la­to­ry ques­tions are ­also need­ed to ­choose, devel­op and con­duct an appro­pri­ate bio­re­me­di­a­tion.

lingua: Inglese


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