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Rivista di Anestesia, Rianimazione, Terapia Antalgica e Terapia Intensiva

Official Journal of the Italian Society of Anesthesiology, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care
Indexed/Abstracted in: Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 2,036

Periodicità: Mensile

ISSN 0375-9393

Online ISSN 1827-1596


Minerva Anestesiologica 2015 Agosto;81(8):901-9


Epidural steroid injections: update on efficacy, safety, and newer medications for injection

Kozlov N., Benzon H. T., Malik K.

Department of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA

The setting of radicular pain with epidural steroid and non-steroid injections more efficacious than non-epidural injections. Studies showed the efficacy of non-particulate steroid to approach the efficacy of particulate steroid and very limited comparisons demonstrated no significant difference between epidural steroid and epidural non-steroid (local anesthetic) injection. Preliminary studies evaluating epidural injection of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs such etanercept and tocilizumab showed conflicting results and had significant limitations. Randomized studies support better efficacy of transforaminal injection due to greater incidence of ventral epidural spread of injectate when compared to interlaminar injection. Thus, the transforaminal approach is recommended when unilateral radicular pain is limited to one nerve root. However, the transforaminal approach is associated with greater incidence of central nervous system injury, including paraplegia, attributed to embolization of the particulate steroid. Recent studies showed that non-particulate steroids potentially last as long as particulate steroids. Therefore non-particulate steroid should be used in initial transforaminal epidural injection. Future studies should look into the role of adjunct diagnostic aids, including digital subtraction angiography, in detecting intravascular injection and the ideal site of needle placement, whether it is the safe triangle or the triangle of Kambin. Finally, the role of epidural disease -modifying antirheumatic drugs in the management of back pain needs to be better elucidated.

lingua: Inglese


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