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Online ISSN 1827-1596
Tsuchiya M. 1, Takahashi R. 1, Furukawa A. 1, Suehiro K. 1, Mizutani K. 2, Nishikawa K. 1
1 Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka City University Medical School, Abeno-Ku, Osaka, Japan;
2 Department of Anesthesia, Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai, Japan
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe cardiovascular disease are frequently hemodynamically unstable during abdominal surgery. Improving the safety of such patients by stabilizing intraoperative hemodynamics remains a major concern for anesthesiologists. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in combination with general anesthesia may facilitate optimum anesthetic management of these high-risk patients.
METHODS: Patients with cardiovascular disease classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 3 were enrolled. The patients were undergoing elective abdominal surgery and were randomized to a group receiving general anesthesia and TAP block (Group T, N.=33) or a group receiving general anesthesia alone (Group G, N.=35). We compared the groups for intraoperative hemodynamic stability, anesthesia emergence time, amounts of anesthetics and opioids given, and frequency of emergency treatment with cardiovascular agents. A preliminary study demonstrated that systolic blood pressure and heart rate were maintained stable within 70-110% of their preanesthesia values throughout surgery in ASA 1 elderly patients without cardiovascular disease. Thus, the hemodynamically stable time was defined as the time when systolic blood pressure and heart rate were 70-110% of their preanesthesia values. The ratio of hemodynamically stable time to total operative time was used as an index of hemodynamic stability.
RESULTS: The median (minimum-maximum) percentage of hemodynamically stable time was longer in Group T (91[50-100]%) than Group G (79[40-91]%, P<0.01). The mean sevoflurane concentration, amount of fentanyl given and frequency of vasopressor use were lower in Group T than Group G (P<0.05). Anesthesia emergence time was shorter in Group T (14[4-30] min) than Group G (18[9-52] min, P<0.01). No worsening of cardiovascular complications was observed.
CONCLUSION: For abdominal surgery in patients with severe cardiovascular disease, combining TAP block with general anesthesia promotes intraoperative hemodynamic stability and early emergence from anesthesia.