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Online ISSN 1827-1596
Thorburn K. 1, Eisenhut M. 2, Riordan A. 3
1 Department of Pediatric Intensive Care and Immunology, Alder Hey Children’s Hospital, Liverpool, UK;
2 Department of Pediatrics, Luton and Dunstable Hospital, Luton, UK;
3 Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Alder Hey Children’s Hospital, Liverpool, UK
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common pathogens involved in nosocomial infection in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of nosocomial RSV infection on mortality and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) morbidity of ventilated children.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study of all children ventilated with RSV infection in a tertiary-referral PICU over a 10-year period. Determinants of the relationship of nosocomial (PICU-acquired and hospital ward-acquired) RSV infection to mortality and PICU morbidity were adjusted for by performing multiple regression analysis.
RESULTS: Of 525 RSV-positive children ventilated on PICU during the ten-year study period, 38 (7.2%) acquired their RSV infection following PICU admission and 38 (7.2%) had acquired RSV in hospital. Ten (26%) children that acquired RSV on PICU died (RR 6.4, 95%CI 3.2-12.9) and 11 (29%) with hospital ward-acquired infection died (RR 9.8, 95%CI 5.1-18.9), compared to 18 (4%) with community-acquired RSV infection. Nosocomial RSV infection was significantly and independently associated with death which was more strongly predicted by immunodeficiency and congenital heart disease (P<0.01). Nosocomial RSV infection was the strongest predictor for morbidity as reflected in duration of ventilation and length of stay on PICU (P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Nosocomial RSV infection was independently associated with increased mortality and was the strongest predictor of duration of ventilation and length of stay in children on PICU. Decreasing nosocomial RSV infection would reduce deaths in ventilated children.