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Online ISSN 1827-1596
Sciard D. 1, Cattano D. 1, Hussain M. 1, Rosenstein A. 2
1 Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA;
2 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA
The comprehensive management of proximal hip fractures in elderly patients requires dedicated and responsive teamwork. Elderly patients often present with several comorbidities and the immediate treatment of a fracture has to optimize both medical therapy and analgesic control in order to reduce surgical and anesthetic complications and to preserve as much cognitive functioning as possible. The elderly are uniquely exposed to complications related to bed rest, delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), which appear to be independent factors of morbidity. Anesthetic management that includes good perioperative pain management can influence the patient’s inflammatory response and possibly decrease the incidence of POCD. The best choice of surgical treatment depends on the type of fracture as well as the patient’s age and medical condition. However, the type of anesthesia management, which includes neuraxial blocks, peripheral nerve blocks and/or general anesthesia, has to be tailored towards generated the best outcome. We present a review from a surgical and anesthetic perspective on the most common perioperative issues in proximal fracture repair.