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Rivista di Anestesia, Rianimazione, Terapia Antalgica e Terapia Intensiva
POINTS OF VIEW
Minerva Anestesiologica 2011 Aprile;77(4):463-7
Guidelines for nutrition therapy in critical illness: are not they all the same?
Martindale R. G. 1, McCarthy M. S. 2, McClave S. A. 3 ✉
1 Division of General Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA;
2 Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA, USA;
3 Division of Gastroenterology/Hepatology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA
In general, clinical guidelines identify, summarize, and evaluate the most current data concerning prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and cost for a specific patient population. This paper will briefly describe the authors’ point of view regarding controversial aspects of adult critical care nutrition therapy guidelines published by preeminent professional societies in the United States (US), Canada, and Europe. The US guidelines were developed by subject matter experts to offer recommendations for specialized nutrition therapy that are supported by review and analysis of the pertinent current literature, other national and international guidelines, and by a blend of expert opinion and clinical practicality. A similar strategy was used to compile all three guideline publications resulting in many areas of common agreement, but disparate substantive recommendations do exist regarding: indirect calorimetry versus predictive equations, prokinetics in the intensive care unit (ICU), arginine use in the ICU, probiotic use in the ICU, and acceptable gastric residual volumes in the ICU patient. All of the guidelines are based on high quality studies in patients with critical illness, but like any other therapeutic modality for an ICU patient, nutritional interventions require a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates institutional best practices, individual patient considerations, and above all, clinical judgment.