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Online ISSN 1827-1596
Eilers H. 1, Liu K. D. 2, Gruber A. 1, Niemann C. U. 1,3
1 Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA;
2 Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA;
3 Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasing health problems worldwide. In the US alone, an estimated 26 million people suffer from some form of CKD. In countries such as India and Pakistan, the prevalence of CKD is also rapidly rising. The presence of CKD is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality, even when adjusted for other variables such as hypertension or diabetes. Frequently, CKD is under diagnosed, so patients and physicians are often unaware of the impaired renal function. Renal dysfunction as a predictor of perioperative outcomes is discussed together with therapeutic interventions aimed at the protection of renal function. Better interventions and diagnostic tools, such as cystatin C, are needed to further improve perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD.