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Online ISSN 1827-1596
De Rosa F. G. 1, Garazzino S. 1, Pasero D. 2, Di Perri G. 1, Ranieri V. M. 2
1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy;
2 Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, 3S. Giovanni Battista-Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy
Invasive candidiasis (IC) includes candidemia, disseminated candidiasis with deep organ involvement, endocarditis and meningitis. IC has an attributable mortality of 40% to 50% and is increasingly reported in intensive care units (ICUs). Candida albicans and non-albicans strains are both responsible for infections in ICUs, where empirical and targeted treatments especially need to be initially appropriate. This review synthesizes the most recent guidelines for IC and candidemia from an ICU perspective. Essentially, patients who have been previously exposed to azoles have a higher probability of being infected by azole-resistant or non-albicans strains. Infection site, illness severity, neutropenia, hemodynamic status, organ failure and concomitant drug treatments are host-related factors that influence the choice of anti-fungal treatment. In general, echinocandins are currently favored for empiric treatment of candidemia, especially in critically ill patients or those with previous azole exposure. Pharmacokinetic properties and side effects suggest that polyenes should be avoided in patients with renal failure, and that echinocandins and azoles should be avoided in patients with severe hepatic dysfunction.