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Online ISSN 1827-1596
Pitton M. A. 1, Petolillo M. 1, Munegato E. 1, Ciccarese A. A. 1, Visentin S. 2, Paternoster D. M. 2
1 Division of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology “E. Meneghetti”, University of Padua, Padua, Italy;
2 Department of Gynecological Sciences and Human Reproduction, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy represents a genetic disorder characterized by hypertrophy, usually asymmetrical, of the ventricular musculature at the base of the septum in the left ventricular efflux tract. Patients suffering from this disorder can be extremely sensitive to small alterations in ventricular volumes, arterial pressure, cardiac frequency and rhythm. This disorder is found in pregnancy with an incidence of 0.1-0.5% and, because of its gravity, represents a contraindication which is often absolute to pregnancy. Hemodynamic variations such as those found in pregnancy, labor and delivery have complex influences on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our clinical series includes 2 pregnant patients suffering from hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy who both underwent caesarian section in general anesthesia, the first due to the gravity of cardiac obstruction and the second due to the emergent need to proceed after the beginning of labor. The small number of clinical cases in the literature, especially in the last few years, clearly underlines the difficulty of defining both the most correct method for delivery and the most appropriate anesthesiological techniques.In accordance with the literature and our clinical experience, we can conclude that a carefully managed pregnancy can proceed without complications in patients with moderate obstruction and that a regional anesthesiological approach is also possible with careful hemodynamic monitoring. General anesthesia, however, remains the safest method and has fewer risks for patients with serious obstruction or with worsening of their clinical condition during pregnancy.