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Rivista di Angiologia
Official Journal of the , the International Union of Phlebology and the
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,899
International Angiology 2016 Feb 12
Histologic and sonographic features of holmium laser in chronic venous disease treatment
Sergio GIANESINI 1, Roberta GAFà 2, Savino OCCHIONORELLI 1, Erica MENEGATTI 1, Anna M. MALAGONI 1, Paolo SPATH 1, Giovanni LANZA 2, Paolo ZAMBONI 1 ✉
1 Vascular Disease Center, Unit of Translational Surgery, Italy; 2 Pathology Department, University of Ferrara, Italy
BACKGROUND: A new holmium laser (HOL) has been introduced to the market. The device is able to reduce the great saphenous vein (GSV) calibre in a tumescenseless procedure, favoring an effective sclerotherapy of large vessels. Aim of the present investigation is to provide the first in vivo data about the effect of HOL on GSV histology.
METHODS: Six chronic venous disease (C2-5EpAsPr) patients (M/F:1/1;Age:57±8,BMI:24±2) underwent HOL-assisted calibre reduction of the GSV, high-ligation and flush ligation of the incompetent tributaries. Three cm of proximal great saphenous vein not treated by laser and 3 cm of a contiguous segment that was just previously treated by HOL were harvested. Histological assessments were performed. Patent GSV lumen calibre was assessed at the mid-thigh right before, and after the procedure. Peri-procedural pain was graded by Visual Analogue Scale.
RESULTS: GSV samples after holmium laser therapy showed thickening of the vascular wall with a decreased, yet patent lumen. Immunostaining demonstrated intact endothelial lining in both the treated and not treated segments. Expansion of collagen fibers was observed in the laser-treated segments. Collagen appeared more homogeneous than in controls, with an amorphous appearance. Laser treated veins showed a reduction in elastic fibers with greater fragmentation. Smooth muscle cells appeared swollen. Calibre of the mid-thigh great saphenous vein lumen decreased from 8.1 mm±0.8 to 3.9±0.2 mm (p<.0001). The average peri procedural pain was 1± 0.6.
CONCLUSION: HOL significantly reduces the calibre of the GSV. The endothelial lining is spared, while the remaining wall is thickened by a hyalinization-like process.