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Rivista di Angiologia
Official Journal of the , the International Union of Phlebology and the
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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International Angiology 2016 October;35(5):516-25
Long-term mortality after invasive diagnostic and endovascular revascularization in PAD patients
Eva M. BROICH, Holger REINECKE, Nasser M. MALYAR, Matthias MEYBORG, Katrin GEBAUER ✉
Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term, all-cause mortality among PAD patients hospitalized for invasive diagnostics and/or endovascular revascularization (ER) and the applied secondary prevention management.
METHODS: From 2005 to 2009, at our center 582 consecutive patients underwent invasive peripheral angiography in part in combination with coronary angiography and/or ER. Patients were classified according to their Fontaine stage into 3 subgroups: Fontaine I/IIa, Fontaine IIb, and Fontaine stages III and IV (which were classified as critical limb ischemia, CLI). Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively obtained and patients followed up.
RESULTS: Mean age increased with higher Fontaine stages (P=0.009). The proportion of patients with diabetes and anemia was lowest in Fontaine stage IIb and highest in CLI (each p<0.001). The cumulative all-cause mortality during follow-up was 17% in Fontaine stage I/IIa, 22% in Fontaine stage IIb and 34% in CLI, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariate cox regression models including diabetes mellitus, gender, age, creatinine and baseline hemoglobin, patients with Fontaine stage IIb had a 1.4-fold (95%CI 0.60-3.16) and those with CLI a 2.3-fold (95%CI 1.03-5.08) increased mortality compared to Fontaine stage I/IIa. At baseline, patients with CLI received significantly less beta blocker, statins, ACE or AT1 inhibitors and less anticoagulants; at follow-up only statins were significantly less often prescribed to CLI patients (all p<0.05). Univariate analyses showed that a therapy with statins (HR 0.64; CI 0.43-0.96; P=0.03) and antiplatelet/anticoagulant agents (HR 0.5; CI 0.27-0.94; P=0.03) significantly reduced mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term mortality in CLI patients doubles the rate in patients with Fontaine stage I/IIa. Non-adherence to evidence-based recommendations and guidelines such as inadequate use of cardioprotective drugs might contribute to the observed high mortality rates in patients with CLI.