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Rivista di Angiologia
Official Journal of the , the International Union of Phlebology and the
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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International Angiology 2013 October;32(5):518-25
Post-exercise ankle-brachial index is not an indispensable tool for the detection of peripheral arterial disease in an epidemiological survey. A post-hoc analysis of the Athens Study
Gouveri E. 1, Papanas N. 2, Marakomichelakis G. 1, Tzavara C. 1, Drakopanagiotakis F. 1, Maltezos E. 2, Diamantopoulos E. J. 1 ✉
1 Fourth Department of Internal Medicine and Unit of Vascular Medicine, Evangelismos State General Hospital, Athens, Greece;
2 Second Department of Internal Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
Aim: Previous studies have estimated the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of non-invasive methods for the detection of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of non-invasive diagnostic tools and more specifically ankle-brachial index (ABI) at rest and after exercise for the detection of PAD in an epidemiological survey conducted in Greece.
Methods: Overall, a representative sample of 2089 adults (911 men and 1178 women), 18-90 years old (mean age 46.88+14.98 years) living in the greater Athens area, participated in the study. For the detection of intermittent claudication, the Rose questionnaire (RQ) was used. Moreover, physical examination (PE) of the lower extremities was performed, ABI both at rest and after exercise was measured.
Results: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with PAD, corresponding to a prevalence of 1.43%. Sensitivity and specificity of RQ, PE, ABI at rest and one minute after stress test were 53.33%, 66.67%, 100%, 64.71% and 98.79%, 97.77%, 99.81%, 94.94%, respectively. The combination of RQ with PE and ABI at rest yielded a 41.18% sensitivity, but a very high specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%).
Conclusion: ABI at rest detected PAD in the epidemiological setting, and its combination with RQ and PE attained a very high specificity. Intermittent claudication and physical examination, while easier to evaluate, were considerably less sensitive. Finally, inclusion of postexercise ABI did not increase sensitivity which leads to the conclusion that this diagnostic tool is not needed for the detection of PAD in large epidemiological surveys.