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Rivista di Angiologia

Official Journal of the International Union of Angiology, the International Union of Phlebology and the Central European Vascular Forum
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International Angiology 2013 August;32(4):424-32

lingua: Inglese

Second look at congenital vascular malformations: current classification, diagnostic and treatment principles

Maksimovic Z. 1, 2, Maksimovic M. 1, Maksimovic M. 3, Koncar I. 1, 2, Ilic N. 1, 2, Dragas M. 1, 2

1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia;
2 Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia;
3 Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia


Congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) are not rare disorders, with the overall incidence of 1.5%. Due to their complex embryology and various clinical presentations, there was a long lasting confusion among vascular specialists regarding the etiology, classification, basic principles of evaluation and treatment of these anomalies. The introduction of the Hamburg classification and its adoption by experts around the world made further studies of CVMs and comparison of results among different specialists possible. Precise diagnosis of the type and extent of the malformation is paramount for the choice of adequate treatment. In most instances this can be achieved with a detailed history, careful physical examination and a combination of appropriate non-invasive studies. Invasive tests should be reserved for confirmation of diagnosis and serve as a road map for treatment planning. Modern treatment of CVMs is based on a multidisciplinary team approach involving specialists in vascular surgery, interventional radiology, pediatrics, nuclear medicine, orthopedic surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery and physical therapy. Surgical and endovascular techniques are used in conjunction to minimize morbidity and improve treatment outcomes.

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