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Official Journal of the , the International Union of Phlebology and the
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,899
Kakkos S. K. 1, Nicolaides A. 1,2, Griffin M. 1, Sabetai M. 1, Dhanjil S. 1, Thomas D. J. 3, Sonecha T. 1, Salmasi A. M. 1,4, Geroulakos G. 1,5, Georgiou N. 2, Francis S. 1, Ioannidou E. 2, Dore C. J. 6 for the Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis and Risk of Stroke (ACSRS) Study Group
1 Department of Vascular Surgery, Imperial College, London, UK
2 The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus
3 Department of Neurology, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK
4 Cardiac Department, Central Middlesex Hospital, London, UK
5 Department of Vascular Surgery, Ealing Hospital, London, UK
6 MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK
Aim. This study determines the factors associated with mortality in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.
Methods. Patients (n=1 101) with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis greater than 50% in relation to the bulb diameter were followed up for a period of 6 to 84 (median 38) months. Stenosis was graded using duplex scanning and expressed as a percentage of the carotid bulb diameter. Clinical and biochemical risk factors were recorded. The end-points were ipsilateral ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death and all cause mortality.
Results. In a Cox multivariate analysis 6 factors emerged as independent predictors of risk. Age, male gender, cardiac failure, left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram (ECG) and myocardial ischemia on ECG were associated with increased risk. Antiplatelet therapy was associated with decreased risk. Based on these risk factors a high-risk group consisting of one third of the population with a 40% cumulative cardiovascular death rate and a 66% all cause death rate at 7 years could be identified. The remaining 2/3 consisted of a low-risk group with a 10% cumulative cardiovascular death rate and a 21% all cause death rate at 7 years (P<0.0001 compared to the high risk group). There was not any significant difference in the cumulative ipsilateral stroke rate, which was 12% in the low and 13% in the high cardiovascular risk group (Log Rank P>0.05).
Conclusion. The methodology and findings from the ACSRS natural history study need to be applied to randomized controlled trials on the value of carotid endarterectomy or stenting in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. They may help refine the indications for intervention in patients with carotid endarterectomy.