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Rivista di Angiologia
Official Journal of the , the International Union of Phlebology and the
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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International Angiology 2004 December;23(4):355-66
Contemporary diagnosis and management of ve- nous and arterio-venous shunting malformation by whole body blood pool scintigraphy
Lee B. B. 1, Mattassi R. 2,3, Kim B. T. 3, Kim Y. W. 3, Ahn J. M. 3, Choi J. Y. 3
1 Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA and CVM Clinic, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2 Bicocca University of Milan and Department of Vascular Surgery, G. Salvini Hospital, Milan, Italy and CVM Clinic Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
3 CVM Clinic of Vascular Center, Samsung Medical Center and Departments of Surgery Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Aim. Various non- to less-invasive tests have been recently introduced in the management of congenital vascular malformations (CVM) and have become essential for the initial diagnostic work-up, largely replacing the traditional role of invasive tests. Whole body blood pool scintigraphy (WBBPS) was initially adopted as a supplementary test to reinforce other well-established essential diagnostic tests, and has been used extensively together in our Clinic, for years. We have evaluated WBBPS retrospectively for the diagnosis of venous malformation (VM) and arterio-venous malformation (AVM), and also for a further possible role for the interim assessment of treatment results during multistaged embolo/sclerotherapy.
Methods. Of 123 VMs and 48 AVMs selected for various treatments, 80 patients (66 VMs and 14 AVMs) were reviewed. The reliability of WBBPS as an initial diagnostic tool for VMs and AVM was assessed first by comparing its findings with matching MRI and/or duplex scan findings. These 80 patients underwent embolo/sclerotherapy with absolute ethanol mostly for VM, and N-butyl cyanoacrylate for AVM. A total of 251 sessions were performed either as a primary treatment independently or in conjunction with surgical treatment preoperatively. Thirty-six patients were available in terms of the subsequent review of the treatment results, to compare their 72 post-therapy WBBPS findings with matching duplex scan and MRI findings. The WBBPS assessment of treatment response was based on the percentage reduction of abnormal blood pooling over the region of interest (ROI) from baseline (initial) value. Treatment response was also qualitatively and semi-quantitatively assessed according to the degree of abnormal blood pool reduction.
Results. Of the 80 CVM (66 VM and 14 AVM) patients, 61 of 66 WBBPS findings of VM on initial diagnosis were confirmed as true-positive. Twelve of 14 AVMs were also confirmed as WBBPS true-positive findings. The sensitivity of WBBPS for the initial diagnosis was 93.8% (61/65) for VM and 92.3% (12/13) for AVM. The positive predictive value was 98.4% (61/62) for VM and 92.3% (12/13) for AVM. Of 72 post-therapy WBBPS performed for follow-up assessment of the results of treatment on 36 patients, 52 WBBPS showed positive findings qualitatively and/or quantitatively, the remaining 20 were negative. Fifty-one of the 52 WBBPS-positive findings were true-positive and 18 of the 20 were true-negative. Hence, WBBPS for follow-up assessment showed a sensitivity of 96% (51/53); a specificity of 95% (18/19); a positive predictive value of 98% (51/52); and a negative predictive value of 90% (18/20).
Conclusion. Contemporary management of CVMs can be improved by using WBBPS, which is a less expensive, simple, and safe non-invasive test, especially for venous and arterio-venous malformations. WBBPS is a cost-effective and practical test with dependable accuracy for the assessment of treatment results, especially for interim measurements during multistage embolo/sclerotherapy.