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Official Journal of the , the International Union of Phlebology and the
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,899
Online ISSN 1827-1839
Ao P. Y., Hawthorne W. J., Coombs R., Fletcher J. P.
From the Department of Surgery and * Haematology The University of Sydney, Westmaed Hospital Westmaed, New South Wales, Australia
Background. Both unfractionated heparin (UH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in therapeutic anticoagulant doses have been shown to inhibit the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH) but with an increased risk of haemorrhage. In this study we investigated the effect of a “low dose” and “high dose” of UH and LMWH on the inhibition of IH together with their effect on plasma anti-Xa activity (AXa) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) using a carotid artery sheep model.
Methods. A gelatin sealed Dacron patch graft was implanted into the common carotid artery of sheep which were randomly allocated to a control group (Group 1, n=10) or to one of four treatment groups receiving either low-dose LMWH enoxaparin 1 mg/kg/day (group 2, n=11), high-dose LMWH enoxaparin 2 mg/kg/day (Group 3, n=13), low-dose UH 125 u/kg/day (Group 4, n=10) or high-dose UH 250 u/kg/day (Group 5, n=10). The LMWH was administered subcutaneously once daily for four weeks and the UH in two divided doses per day for four weeks. During the treatment period, AXa and APTT were assayed from blood collected prior to and at 1 and 2 h after heparin administration on day 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. On day 28, all animals were sacrificed and grafts were collected for analysis after taking blood samples prior to, then at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h following the last injection. Measurements of intimal thickness were obtained under light microscopy from eight transverse sections of each grafted artery using an eyepiece graticule.
Results. IH measurements (Mean±SD) were: Group 1 (controls) 288±86 μm, Group 2 (low-dose LMWH) 222±50 mm (p<0.05 compared to Group 1), Group 3 (high-dose LMWH) 203±78 μm (p<0.01), Group 4 (low-dose UH) 275±61 μm, and Group 5 (high-dose UH) 206±71 μm (p<0.01). There was no significant difference between Groups 2, 3 and 5. Groups 2, 3 and 5 demonstrated significant AXa during the 28 days period of which Groups 2 and 5 showed a significant increase in AXa levels with time. In the 24 h study after the last dose of treatment both Groups 2 and 3 showed longer AXa than group 5 (12-24 h vs 8 h). When compared to the control group, significant elevation of APTT was demonstrated in Groups 3 and 5. Group 5 had significantly longer APTT than Group 3. In the 24 h study, APTT reflected the changes of AXa in all groups.
Conclusions. In this study the LMWH enoxaparin was effective in reducing the formation of IH both at a standard anticoagulant therapeutic dose of 2 mg/kg/day and also at a lower dose of 1 mg/kg/day.