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Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Online ISSN 1827-1642
Giacomo CAIO 1, 2, Gabriele RIEGLER 3, Marta PATTURELLI 3, Angela FACCHIANO 3, Laura DE MAGISTRIS 3, Anna SAPONE 4
1 Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 3 Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 4 Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is the term used to describe individuals complaining of intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to gluten ingestion and rapidly improving after its withdrawal, and in which both celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA) were properly ruled out. The prevalence of this condition remains unknown and a lot of questions about the possible pathogenetic mechanisms are still unclarified. It is believed that NCGS represents a heterogeneous condition with different subgroups potentially characterized by different pathogenesis, clinical history, and clinical course. Moreover, a possible overlap with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional diseases could complicate patient selection for clinical studies, slowing down the understanding of this disorder. Last but not least, the lack of validated biomarkers remains a significant limitation in research studies on NCGS. Hence, there is a need for strict diagnostic criteria for NCGS.