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Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Giovanni CASELLA 1, Roberta POZZI 2, Marta CICOGNETTI 3, Francesco BACHETTI 4, Gabriele TORTI 4, Moris CADEI 3, Vincenzo VILLANACCI 3, Vittorio BALDINI 1, Gabrio BASSOTTI 4
1 Medical Department, Desio Hospital, Desio (Monza Brianza), Italy; 2 Gastro-Intestinal Endoscopy Service, Istituti Clinici “Zucchi” Gruppo, San Donato, Monza , Italy; 3 Institute of Pathology, Spedali Civili Brescia, Brescia ,Italy; 4 Gastroenterology & Hepatology Section, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia Medical School, Perugia, Italy
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50’, Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients. In 1970, Goldberg et al , in a study of 80 celiac patients, found that 34% of them showed minor affective disorders. Bipolar disorder patients show an increase of blood anti gliadin deamidated antibodies (IgG). The effect of diet and nutrition on autistic spectrum disorders has been investigated in the 2 last decades, particularly focusing on the symptoms of hyperactivity and attention. Toxoplasma gondii and other neurotropic pathogens as Influenzavirus and Coronavirus may be associated with mood disorders, probably secondary to an increased intestinal permeability. Abnormalities of host-microbiota interactions or of gut-microbiota composition have been associated with central nervous system disorders, such as autism, anxiety, depression and the integrity of intestinal microbiota may be considered a potential therapeutic goal to treat these conditions.