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Rivista di Chirurgia Cardiaca, Vascolare e Toracica

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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2015 August;56(4):513-8

lingua: Inglese

Is intra-aortic balloon pump absolutely contraindicated in type A aortic dissection?

Jaussaud N. 1, Durand M. 2, Boignard A. 2, Porcu P. 2, Hacini R. 2, Blin D. 2, Chavanon O. 2

1 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Timone University Hospital, Marseille, France;
2 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble, France


AIM: Circulatory failure following surgery for type A aortic dissection is frequent and associated with a high mortality rate. The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is used to treat postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock but aortic dissection is traditionally a contraindication. In 10 patients we used IABP for severe cardiogenic shock following aortic dissection surgery, here we report on the short and midterm results.
METHODS: From January 2000 to April 2008, among 151 patients with type A aortic dissection 10 received a postoperative IABP. False lumen extension was limited to the ascending aorta for 3 patients, reached the arch for 1 and the descending aorta for 6.
RESULTS: The device was placed in the operative room (7 patients), intensive care unit (2) and preoperatively (1). IABP was introduced percutaneously except for one who required surgical placement. The mean duration of IABP therapy was 3.8 days. Four patients died, but no death was directly related to IABP. Improvement in hemodynamics allowed 8 patients to be weaned off IABP. None suffered extension of the dissection. Two patients developed IABP-related complications. Six required extrarenal purification. Among the survivors, one died of a stroke at 38 months, 2 recovered the same quality of life and 3 had neurological sequelae without loss of autonomy.
CONCLUSION: IABP should only be used as a salvage option in cases of severe cardiogenic shock following type A aortic dissection. No patient suffered device-related aortic rupture or extension of the dissection. High mortality and morbidity underline the gravity of cardiogenic shock in this setting.

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