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THE JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
Rivista di Chirurgia Cardiaca, Vascolare e Toracica
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES CARDIAC SECTION
The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2005 December;46(6):569-76
Myocardial protection with insulin cardioplegia: who can really benefit?
Onorati F. 1, Renzulli A. 2, De Feo M. 1, Santarpino G. 1, Galdieri N. 1, Quarto C. 1, De Santo L. S. 1, Cotrufo M. 1
1 Department of Cardiothoracic and Respiratory Sciences Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
2 Cardiac Surgery Unit University of “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, Italy
Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects on myocardial protection of insulin-enriched warm blood cardioplegia (IWBC) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and in subgroups of patients with associated cardiac co-morbidities.
Methods. Between May 2000 and December 2002, 268 consecutive patients underwent CABG with warm blood cardioplegia (group A) or IWBC (10 UI/L) (group B). Hospital outcome, ECG, echocardiography and biochemical markers of ischemia were compared. Differences between subgroups of patients with unstable angina (UA), ventricular hypertrophy (VH) and diabetes were assessed.
Results. Hospital mortality, incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction and low output syndrome, IABP requirement, postoperative atrial fibrillation, in-hospital and in-ITU stay, postoperative recovery of left ventricular function and enzyme leakage did not show differences between the 2 groups; inotropic support was lower in IWBC. Moreover, patients with UA and IWBC showed a lower troponin I (TnI) (12 h: 0.82±0.57 ng/mL vs 2.56±1.18, P<0.0001; 24 h: 0.71±0.64 vs 2.16±1.52, P<0.0001; 48 h: 0.69±1.13 vs 1.79±1.43, P=0.001; 72 h: 0.44±0.83 vs 1.01±1.02, P=0.001), lower incidence of atrial fibrillation (4.2% versus 60.6%; P<0.0001) and intraoperative defibrillation (0% versus 27.3%; P=0.007). Furthermore, patients with VH treated with IWBC showed lower level of TnI (12 h: 0.41±0.32 ng/mL vs 2.93±0.67, P<0.0001; 24 h: 0.37±0.45 vs 2.40±1.28, P<0.0001; 48 h: 0.22±0.18 vs 1.95±1.33, P<0.0001; 72 h: 0.12±0.12 vs 1.31±1.56, P<0.0001), lower atrial fibrillation (6.5% vs 48%, P<0.0001) and ventricular defibrillation (0% vs 20%, P=0.011).
Conclusion. Insulin addiction to blood cardioplegia does not show any benefit in the global population and in diabetics; nevertheless, better myocardial protection can be demonstrated in patients with unstable angina and left ventricular hypertrophy.