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THE JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY

Rivista di Chirurgia Cardiaca, Vascolare e Toracica


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The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2005 Agosto;46(4):333-48

lingua: Inglese

Endografting of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

Malina M. 1,2, Sonesson B. 1,2, Ivancev K. 1

1 Endovascular Center, Malmö University Hospital Malmö, Sweden
2 Department of Vascular Surgery Malmö University Hospital Malmö, Sweden


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3D imaging and endovascular repair have greatly increased the number of interventions in the thoracic aorta. Excellent early results of endovascular repair compensate unproven long term durability. Challenging anatomy is associated with increased risk for late failure of the stent graft (SG) but the option of open repair usually remains and complications from open surgery are also more frequent in these cases. The indications for endovascular repair of the descending aorta include aneurysms larger than 5-6 cm in diameter, pseudoaneurysms and type B dissection complicated by rupture, aortic dilation or distal hypoperfusion. Traumatic transections and certain types of coarctation are also treated endovascularly. Aortic rupture is associated with a high mortality and treatment is attempted liberally. Logistics remain a limitting factor for urgent stent grafting in many centers. Adequate pre and intraoperative imaging is mandatory for correct SG implantation. The mechanical forces of aortic blood flow jeopardize durable fixation of the device. Extended fixation zones of at least 5 cm, generous overlap between SG components and SG positioning along the outer curvature of the sac improve durability. Primary complications include stroke and paraplegia in about 5% of the cases. Late complications are mainly associated with SG dislodgement and inadequate seal. Surveillance is required. Future development focuses on treatment of leasions in the aortic arch. Debranching of the arch and branched SGs are currently being investigated.

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